RECURRENT ATYPICAL OPTIC NEURITIS AS THE LEADING SIGN OF FABRY DISEASE
Keywords:Optic neuritis; Fabry disease; Diagnosis; Therapeutics; Female; Case reports
Acute optic neuritis has the age and sex adjusted incidence of 1-5/100,000 in general population. It is mostly a disorder affecting young Caucasian women (31-32 years). Patients present to a wide range of clinicians including general practitioner, emergency physician, ophthalmologist, neurologist, etc. There are two main clinical presentations of optic neuritis, typical and atypical. It is of great importance to distinguish these two types of optic neuritis in order to detect the underlying etiology and plan appropriate and timely treatment. We present a young female patient (36 years) admitted to Department of Ophthalmology due to visual loss on the left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging showed demyelinating lesions in frontal and parietal lobe, periventricularly, in mesencephalon and right cerebellar hemisphere, and left optic neuritis; magnetic resonance angiography was normal. The patient’s history revealed renal dysfunction, hypothyroidism, and miscarriage in the 6th month of pregnancy due to eclampsia, and Fabry disease in family (mother and two sisters). She was transferred to the Department of Neurology for further evaluation of the demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system. The patient received corticosteroid therapy (methylprednisolone 1 g) for 5 days with regression of visual disturbances on the left eye. After this acute treatment, the question of definitive diagnosis remained, along with further treatment of the underlying cause. Considering renal dysfunction, miscarriage, arterial hypertension, positive genetic and biochemical testing for Fabry disease in close relatives (mother), we suspected that she also had Fabry disease. She was tested and the results were positive. We concluded that optic neuritis was the first sign of Fabry disease in this case, reflecting acute atypical neuroinflammatory disease.